An Introduction to Skin Cancer

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About This Page

Our intention is to provide a general introduction to Skin Cancer, with links to specific information available around the Net. Please send us your comments, suggestions, and information about sites not listed here. E-mail form here. We would like to make this page a gathering place for all available information about skin cancer and related subjects. Your help will make it as complete as possible.

What Causes Skin Cancer?

Sunburn and Sunlight

Very simply, sunburn and UV light can damage your skin, and this damage can lead to skin cancer. There are of course other determining factors, including your heredity and the environment you live in. However, both the total amount of sun received over the years, and overexposure resulting in sunburn can cause skin cancer. Most people receive 80% of their lifetime exposure to the sun by 18 years of age. The message to parents from this is to protect your children.

Tanning is your skin's response to UV light. It is a protective reaction to prevent further injury to your skin from the sun. However, it does not prevent skin cancer.

Remember, skin cancer is very slow to develop. The sunburn you receive this week may take 20 years or more to become skin cancer.


If there is a history of skin cancer in your family, you are probably at a higher risk. People with fair skin, with a northern European heritage appear to be most susceptible.


The level of UV light today is higher than it was 50 or 100 years ago. This is due to a reduction of ozone in the earth's atmosphere (the Ozone Hole). Ozone serves as a filter to screen out and reduce the amount of UV light that we are exposed to. With less atmospheric ozone, a higher level of UV light reaches the earth's surface.

Other influencing factors include elevation, latitude, and cloud cover. Ultra Violet light is stronger as elevation increases. The thinner atmosphere at higher altitudes cannot filter UV as effectively as it can at sea level. The rays of the sun are also strongest near the equator, as you might guess. But even in Antarctica, Chile, and New Zealand, the UV level is much higher than normal especially in the springtime due to the ozone hole in the southern hemisphere.

One factor that actually reduces UV is cloud cover. Climates and micro-climates with regular cloud cover may have a 50% lower level of UV light. The actual amount is affected by the density of the clouds.

September 1995 Measurements of Antarctic Ozone The latest HALOE data in the form of a 100 mb surface cross section of column ozone (DU) is available. Please consult the data interpretation page for more information about the sampling pattern of HALOE.

United Nations World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Press Release Measurements of the Ozone Hole this year show it "was so far the most rapid depletion on record." An area the size of Europe received significantly higher levels of ultra violet exposure.

Environmental Protection Agency - Ozone Depletion Page This web site contains information about the science of ozone depletion, regulations in the US designed to protect the ozone layer, flyers about the UV index, information for consumers, and other topics.

What is Skin Cancer?

(From the National Cancer Institute PDQ Statement)

Skin cancer is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the outer layers of your skin. Your skin protects your body against heat, light, infection, and injury. It also stores water, fat, and vitamin D.

The skin has two main layers and several kinds of cells. The top layer of skin is called the epidermis. It contains three kinds of cells: flat, scaly cells on the surface called squamous cells; round cells called basal cells; and cells called melanocytes, which give your skin its color.


(From the National Cancer Institute PDQ Statement)

There are several types of cancer that start in the skin. The most common are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer, which are covered in this PDQ patient information statement.

Skin cancer is more common in people with light colored skin who have spent a lot of time in the sunlight. Skin cancer can occur anywhere on your body, but it is most common in places that have been exposed to more sunlight, such as your face, neck, hands, and arms.

Skin cancer can look many different ways. The most common sign of skin cancer is a change on the skin, such as a growth or a sore that won't heal. Sometime there may be a small lump. This lump can be smooth, shiny and waxy looking, or it can be red or reddish brown. Skin cancer may also appear as a flat red spot that is rough or scaly. Not ail changes in your skin are cancer, but you should see your doctor if you notice changes in your skin.

Full Text Available Here


(From the National Cancer Institute PDQ Statement)

Melanoma is a disease of the skin in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the cells that color the skin (melanocytes). Melanoma usually occurs in adults, but it may occasionally be found in children and adolescents. Your skin protects your body against heat, light, infection, and injury. It is made up of two main layers: the epidermis (the top layer) and dermis (the inner layer). Melanocytes are found in the epidermis and they contain melanin, which gives the skin its color. Melanoma is sometimes called cutaneous melanoma or malignant melanoma.

Melanoma is a more serious type of cancer than the more common skin cancers, basal cell cancer or squamous cell cancer, which begin in the basal or squamous cells of the epidermis. If you have basal cell or squamous cell cancer of the skin, refer to the patient information statement for skin cancer.

Like most cancers, melanoma is best treated when it is found (diagnosed) early. Melanoma can spread (metastasize) quickly to other parts of the body through the lymph system or through the blood. (Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped structures that are found throughout the body; they produce and store infection-fighting cells.) You should see your doctor if you have any of the following warning signs of melanoma: change in the size, shape, or color of a mole; oozing or bleeding from a mole; or a mole that feels itchy, hard, lumpy, swollen, or tender to the touch. Melanoma can also appear on the body as a new mole. Men most often get melanoma on the trunk (the area of the body between the shoulders and hips) or on the head or neck; women most often get melanoma on the arms and legs.

If you have signs of skin cancer, your doctor will examine your skin carefully. If a mole or pigmented area doesn't look normal, your doctor will cut it out (called local excision) and look at it under the microscope to see if it contains cancer. This is usually done in a doctor's office. It is important that this biopsy is done correctly.

Full Text Available Here

How can I determine my personal risk?

It is estimated that 1 out of 7 people in the United States will develop some form of this cancer during their lifetime. One serious sunburn can increase the risk by as much as 50%.

The effect UV light has on your skin is dependent both upon the intensity and the duration of your exposure. How your skin reacts to the amount of exposure received is related to your genetic background. Even if you rarely sunburn however, sensitive areas such as your lips, nose, and palms of the hands should be protected.

Details about determining your skin type and accompanying risk can be found at:

Are there precautions that will reduce my risk?

The following six steps have been recommended by the American Academy of Dermatology and the Skin Cancer Foundation to help reduce the risk of sunburn and skin cancer.

The UV Index

The UV Index provides a forecast of your likely UV exposure at noon. This forecast can help you determine what level SPF sunscreen will best protect your skin. The forecast is based on a scale of 1 (low) to 15 (high). Here is an explanation of how the UV Index works.

Forecast for 30 U.S. Cities

The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently began issuing a daily UV FORECAST for 30 metropolitan areas around the country. This rating is also broadcast by weather radio, and on local television weather programs.

The Ultra Violet Sensometer

You may also determine the UV level for your area and conditions with a measuring device such as the Ultra Violet Sensometer. The Sensometer is an inexpensive, credit card sized device that measures UV light. As with the UV Forecast, you may then determine the proper SPF sunscreen. The Sensometer can also be used to test the effectiveness of your sunscreen, and when it is time to apply more sunscreen.

Diagnosis and Treatment Information

ALWAYS see your personal physician or dermatologist with any questions you may have about skin cancer, it's causes, diagnosis, and treatment. The following sites may provide supplemental reading.


Always consult a physician with your questions concerning the health effects of UV exposure.